Types of Audio Subliminal Recordings

Types of Subliminal Audio Message RecordingsA true audio subliminal recording has a background audio track and a foreground audio track that are mixed together to create the final recording.

The subliminal messages are contained within the message or background track.

This track is normally a recording of someone speaking short positive phrases related to the topic for desired change.

If the subject area was related to weight loss, typical messages phrases could be “I eat sensibly”, “I exercise regularly”, “My body shape improves with each passing day”, “I eat foods that are good for my body”, and many possible others.

It is extremely important that these message phrases be written and recorded properly and guidelines for doing this are provided.

Subliminal Audio Masking TracksIn addition to the subliminal message audio track, there is also a foreground or masking track that is designed to distract the conscious mind so that you are not aware of the subliminal messages being spoken.

The masking or foreground track may contain sounds of nature such as a waterfall, ocean waves, birds chirping, or a simple rainfall.

Classical or contemporary music without vocal lyrics can also be used if selected with careful consideration.

Another related type of “subliminal” audio recording is not actually subliminal and is called supraliminal. With this type, the message track can easily be heard and is not masked in any way.

The message track usually includes an introductory relaxation segment to guide the listener into a relaxed state.

Relaxation Segment for Audio Subliminal RecordingsIn addition, an audio track is added that contains sounds designed to soothe you.

This type of recording should not be listened to if it is necessary to consciously focus on a task you are performing, such as driving.

With both subliminal and supraliminal audio recordings, two audio tracks (message and sound) are mixed together and the major difference is the recorded volume levels of each track.

In subliminal recordings, the message track is significantly lower in volume than the foreground masking track. In supraliminal recordings, the volume levels for both tracks are essentially the same. 

A third type of “subliminal” audio recording is again not truly subliminal and is called paraliminal. Three specially designed stereo audio tracks are mixed together to create the recording. A message track is used, but in this case will likely present different messages using both left and right audio channels.

The message track may also contain an introductory relaxation segment. A second sound track containing relaxing sounds of some type is also used. The third track is different in that it presents tones of different frequencies to each ear that cause the listener to enter a receptive alpha state in which brainwave activity slows down.

(c) Copyright – B. James Kudlak. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

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Creating Subliminal Sound Tracks

Subliminal Sound Track CreationSubliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal audio recordings require creating a sound track.

The purpose of this audio track is either to mask  messages, promote a state of relaxation or potentially both.

This is extremely important in how the subsequent audio components are built and their effectiveness.

Since the sound or masking track is usually most audibly predominant in a recording, it is important to know how to create, select or generate one in the best way possible.

There are two basic ways to consider a masking or sound track. The first is from the listener’s perspective, and the second from the creator’s perspective.

Since you are the creator of the recording, it is vital that you understand both what a potential listener expects and prefers, as well as what your own requirements are for a masking or sound track.

Subliminal Sound Tracks – What the Listener Expects

Subliminal Recording ExpectationsThe listener obviously expects that the recording will be of a high quality and be effective.

They are not concerned with the details of how it was created, but they will expect the masking or sound track that they hear be relaxing, soothing and appeal to them.

This means that as a recording creator, you must ensure that you meet these requirements. Unfortunately, what is relaxing, soothing and appealing to one person may be completely different for another person.

For example, the gentle sounds of ocean waves lapping onto the seashore with birds chirping in the background may be soothing to some, but may trigger a negative reaction in others.

Similarly, listening to the sounds of insects for an extended period may be quite unpleasant for certain individuals. To a lesser degree, classical music without vocals may simply sound uninteresting to some people.

The solution is to provide as wide a variety of masking or sound tracks as possible so that they appeal to the majority of the potential listeners. As simple as this may seem, it can difficult to do in practice. This is the point where the requirements of the listener meet yours, as a creator.

Sound and Masking Tracks – What the Recording Creator Desires

Being a creator of subliminal or other recording types, your preferences with respect to creating or selecting a masking or sound track are different than that of the listener. The most important of these are as follows:

  • Provide the fewest number of masking or sound tracks possible
  • Appeal to the largest number of listeners possible
  • Whether obtaining or generating sound tracks, be of low cost

Subliminal Recording Masking SoundsYou can provide only a small number of masking or sound tracks and still have your potential listeners find them appealing.

But you must select a core group that has been found to be acceptable to most people. The majority of people find nature sounds or gentle classical music to be soothing, relaxing and appealing.

Within the category of nature sounds, there are the sounds of ocean waves, rainfalls, waterfalls, rivers, brooks, wind, a crackling campfire and many others.

It is suggested that you consider providing two or more different types that sound consistent, such as ocean waves and perhaps a gentle rainfall.

Secondary Masking Track Audio Sounds

Even though these are wise choices, a secondary sound track should also be mixed with them. The reason for this is to provide random sounds that render the track more interesting to the ear.

A suggestion is to include additional nature sounds such as different types of birds or insects. Relaxing and soothing is important, but there is no reason for the sound track to seem so consistent that it becomes boring to listen to.

If you were to choose two primary types of nature and two secondary types, then after mixing, you would have four available selections for use as your sound or masking track.

This should be your minimum core group to use, but if you increase the number of primary or secondary sound types, it becomes more difficult to manage and you should not exceed eight.

Keep in mind that this is only the sound or masking track, and you still need to create and manage message and brainwave tracks (if used).

Subliminal Classical Music Sound SourcesClassical music sound tracks are also appealing but it is important that you choose those that are not overly dynamic.

By this it is meant that there should be few high and lows and the general sound and tempo is consistent.

A soft and gentle concerto by Beethoven or Bach is acceptable, but the 1812 Overture by Tchaikovsky is far too dynamic.

Also, if you choose to use classical music for your sound or masking tracks, there is no reason to mix them with a secondary track containing random sounds of nature.

The reason for this is that most classical music tracks are already reasonably consistent yet still sound interesting.

Sound Track Sources

As a recording creator, you also need to decide whether to obtain your sound or masking tracks from other sources, generate your own with software programs, record them yourself or perhaps a mixture of all three.

Sound Track ResourcesIf you choose to obtain free sound clips or pay for pre-recorded sound tracks, you must be cautious in how you select them.

Many available relate to nature sounds and those that are free are usually very short in length and of poor quality.

It is highly recommended that you do not use free short audio clips in your sound or masking track because of this.

Although usually limited to nature sounds, another option is to obtain software that can generate sound or masking tracks of any length that you can customize in virtually an infinite number of ways.

The advantages to this is that the generated sound track will be exactly what you design it to be, involve no royalty fees, be of high quality, and never have embedded subliminal messages.

You may also select to record your own sound tracks but this can be somewhat of a challenge. It requires the correct environment, good recording equipment and some patience.

Whether it involves nature sounds or classical music, the sound or masking track that you incorporate into your subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal recording should be acceptable to your potential listener and be within the limits of your resources as a creator.

You also need to decide if it is best to record your own sound tracks, use prerecorded ones or use software to generate them. Striving for a balance between what options you provide your listeners with and what is manageable for you should be your goal.

(c) Copyright – B. James Kudlak. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

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How to Design and Create a Relaxation Message Script

Designing Relaxation Message Scripts for Supraliminal and Paraliminal RecordingsTwo types of recordings that you may choose to create require including a relaxation audio segment.

Supraliminal or paraliminal audio recordings should have an introductory audio segment that both physically and mentally helps the listener enter a relaxed state.

This article discusses the best way to write a relaxation script and how to properly use it in your recordings.

There are different aspects to designing a relaxation script and you should strive to achieve the desired effect for your listener and help them in every manner to enter a relaxed state.

Once recorded, your relaxation audio segment can likely be used when creating other recordings, but you must first ensure that it has the desired effect.

There are two features you should consider when writing a relaxation message script. The first is to use statements that will help the listener physically relax, and the second is to optionally introduce statements that allow them to mentally relax.

Designing Message Script Statements for Physical Relaxation

Messages designed to physically relax your listener should induce progressive stages of relaxation. The statements should be designed so that they gradually direct the listener into an increasingly more relaxed body state.

Message Script Statements for Physical RelaxationOne method of doing this is to verbally walk the listener through each major body area, direct their focus on it and suggest that it is now becoming relaxed.

This is easier to achieve if the listener is retiring for the night, or is physically fatigued, but you should not assume this is always the case.

It is better to presume that the listener is basically alert and conscious and construct your messages appropriately.

Doing so ensures that you are targeting people that may be physically exhausted and also those that are fully awake but have chosen to become relaxed by listening to your recording.

Your recorded relaxation script should have the same desired effect on both types of listeners. The only difference would be the time it takes to induce a state of physical relaxation.

It can take only seconds for one person to embrace relaxation and another, many minutes if not more.

Some suggested message statements that you could use in your relaxation script to physically relax your listener in a gradual manner are as follows:

  • Imagine that you are relaxing in a favorite place
  • You are feeling calm and comfortable
  • Breathe in deeply and gently
  • Feel yourself relaxing even more
  • All tension in your face and neck is now disappearing
  • Relaxation is moving to your chest and arms
  • Feel all physical tension dissolve now
  • Feel relaxation in your hips and legs
  • All tension dissolves gently through your feet
  • Breathe out gently and slowly
  • Your body is becoming even more relaxed

This is only a partial list of suggested message statements and you should include several more. Each additional statement should serve to enhance a physical state of relaxation. But you should not write a relaxation script that is too lengthy because once recorded, it may consume more time in the final recording.

By having the listener enter a physically more relaxed state, it is likely that they will become more receptive to the target messages that follow. But this is possibly not enough, in that although they may be relaxed physically, you should consider addressing the issue of mentally relaxing them.

This is optional and possibly not necessary for some of your potential listeners. For certain people, they may be able to relax their body, but their mind can still be active with concerns about the events of the day and perhaps hundreds of other thoughts. For others, once their body is relaxed they may also become mentally relaxed, but this is not always certain.

Designing Message Script Statements for Mental Relaxation

Enhancing Mental Relaxation with Message ScriptsOnce your relaxation script has the designed effect of introducing a state of physical relaxation, an optional next step is to induce a relaxed mental state so that the listener’s subconscious defense mechanisms are furthered lowered.

As a result of being physically relaxed, your target listener may not require more than a few statements that suggest they become mentally at ease.

These messages should be carefully written and in a gentle and considerate manner.

Your goal should be to suggest that they are mentally in a good place, are comfortable, safe and feel wonderful.

To assist you in doing this, some suggested statements that can help your listener enter this state are provided below.

  • Imagine being in a quiet and safe place
  • This is the place you have dreamt about before
  • Pretend that you are now in this place
  • In this place you let go of all problems
  • Everything is wonderful and in every way
  • You feel completely satisfied in this place
  • Embrace this space and let it envelop you
  • You are now feeling calm and comfortable

You will likely be able to write and consider including additional message statements that target mentally relaxing your listener. But you should be careful in how many statements your final relaxation script includes.

You should seek to keep your relaxation segment to at most a few minutes and this would mean writing from 30 to 50 relaxing message statements. This includes both message statements for physical and mental relaxation.

Message statements written to assist in physically relaxing your listener should represent the major content of your relaxation script. Including others that will aid in mentally relaxing your listener is also suggested.

Additional Methods to Inducing Relaxation

Your relaxation message script will ideally have two effects in that it permits the listener to embrace a gradual state of physical relaxation, and also that it optionally promotes a mental state of relaxation.

Sound and Brainwave Audio Tracks for RelaxationEither or both is desirable, but you must also consider the effects of accompanying sound or brainwave tracks designed to enhance this effect.

A relaxing sound track or brainwave track used in your recording will also aid to help your listener relax, both physically and mentally.

These are equally important for helping your listener, but just different.

There is a degree of overlap between your recorded relaxation messages and sound and brainwave tracks.

It may make no difference in the effect produced, but each has a purpose in attempting to quiet the mind of the listener and performs it in a unique manner.

An introductory relaxation audio message segment in your recording will attempt to guide your listener into a more receptive state, but this will only be for a few minutes.

Sound or brainwave audio tracks will attempt to enhance or sustain this relaxed state for almost the entire duration of the recording, but in a different manner.

It may take several attempts to create an ideal relaxation message script, but it will likely be worthwhile because your listener will appreciate it more, and you can likely reuse the relaxation segment in other recordings.

In conclusion, you should design and write your relaxation scripts in a positive manner, and understanding the differences between physical and mental relaxation will only ensure that your listener is more able to embrace the subject messages of your recording.

(c) Copyright – B. James Kudlak. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

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How to Listen to Subliminal Recordings Properly

How to Listen to Subliminal Audio RecordingsAs simple as it may seem, listening to a subliminal or other type of self-help recording involves more than just plug in and play.

There are other aspects to the listening experience you should consider if you wish to optimize the effect the recording has.

This article addresses and explains several overlooked important points of listening properly.

Whether you are creating subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal recordings for personal use or for others, the bottom line is that they are of no use unless they are listened to correctly and effectively.

Even the highest quality recording will not achieve the targeted goal unless it is used and ideally in the best manner.

Assuming the recording you have created or obtained is designed and constructed appropriately, it will have specific characteristics, depending on what type of recording it is.

You may already understand the differences between subliminal, supraliminal and paraliminal recordings. Because each type is unique, the best way to listen to them should also be unique.

How to Listen to a Subliminal Audio Recording

The principle with a subliminal recording is simple in that there is a message track presented at an almost inaudible level. This track is mixed with an additional sound track that masks the messages and is appealing to the ear.

Relaxing and Listening to Subliminal RecordingsThis type of recording is designed so that you can listen to it at anytime, because it does not require you to be able to relax.

Ironically, it is better to listen to a subliminal recording in a relaxed setting.

This is because there is less resistance to the messages from the subconscious mind when you are relaxed.

This does not mean that you should not listen to it when driving or engaged in activities requiring your attention. It only implies that it can be more effective if your conscious defense mechanisms are lowered.

Listen to a subliminal recording any time possible, but if you have a choice, then choose a time when there are fewer conscious distractions around you.

Another suggestion is that you use headphones to listen to the recording if possible. This is not because there are alternating stereo voices as in a paraliminal recording, but rather that using headphones focuses the message and sound track directly. This also has the advantage of reducing any external sounds from the environment around you.

Volume Levels for Listening to Subliminal RecordingsThe volume at which you listen to a subliminal recording is also important and listening to any type of self-help recording should always be a pleasant experience.

Set the volume of your playback device so that you can hear the masking track (ocean waves, for example), but not so loud in that they become irritating.

Equally important, listening at too low a volume may render the subliminal messages useless because they must be audibly perceptible, even if just barely noticeable.

Adjust your volume to a level most comfortable for you by reducing it from a high point and moving downwards to a desirable setting.

Lastly, if you have the option, select a masking sound track that is acceptable to you. For some, water sounds may induce more frequent bathroom visits, and other people may simply not find the sounds of insects very appealing.

How to Listen to a Supraliminal Audio Recording

As you are likely aware of, supraliminal recordings use message and sound tracks that are completely audible. In addition, they almost always contain initial relaxation message segments.

They are designed to introduce a state of relaxation so that the messages that follow are more readily accepted by the subconscious mind. This assumes that when you choose to listen to them you are prepared to become relaxed.

Schedule Time for Listening to RecordingsThis point is sometimes forgotten and by this it is meant that you need to schedule a time to listen to the supraliminal recording.

Even if you can only relax for a short time and perhaps only for 15 or 30 minutes, this is much more effective than listening to it when you are not able to relax.

You should also provide yourself with not just the time, but the environment in which to listen.

Your preferences may involve a relaxing bath, lounging in a chair, or stretched out on a couch. As long as you are comfortable and can eliminate conscious distractions, your listening experience should be satisfying.

How to Listen to a Paraliminal Audio Recording

Paraliminal recordings can be highly effective but only if they are listened to in the correct way. As with a supraliminal recording, scheduling and preparing for a period of relaxation is important. But with a paraliminal recording, you should anticipate listening for an extended period of time, and perhaps several hours.

Also, because a paraliminal recording incorporates multiple stereo tracks, messages are presented to both left and right channels. This may likely include brainwave tracks designed to induce an enhanced state of relaxation.

Listening with Stereo HeadphonesUsing stereo headphones to listen to a paraliminal recording is not only suggested, but is required in order to achieve the best results.

The embedded brainwave entrainment track presents tones of different frequency to each of the stereo channels and will have no effect unless both are audible at the same time.

As with a supraliminal recording, you should provide yourself with a comfortable environment in which to relax while listening. Ideally, this should be at the time when you retire for sleep.

You should also ensure that the stereo headphones you use fit comfortably, deliver high-quality sound and will not slip off your head while you are sleeping. Obtaining a set of quality stereo headphones is an excellent investment if they can help you achieve the goal that you have chosen.

Achieving the benefits of what a subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal recording can offer is only the beginning of a listening experience that ends in your ears.

And what messages are delivered to your ears is dependent on how you choose to embrace them. Ideally, in a manner that has the greatest effect.

So listen if you can, but choose to listen carefully.

(c) Copyright – B. James Kudlak. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

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Side Effects of Creating Subliminal Recordings

Side Effects of Designing and Building Subliminal Audio RecordingsWhether creating subliminal recordings for your own use or for others, you should be aware of the side-effects this may have on you personally.

Each step in designing and creating a self-help recording of any type requires different types of action.

It is almost impossible to avoid the consequences these actions will have on you as a recording creator.

This article discusses how this can affect you in ways you may not have expected.

You likely already understand each of the steps involved in creating either a subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal recording after reviewing other related articles.

The steps having the greatest effect on you will be the creation of the message tracks, the brainwave tracks and the process involved in mixing each of the various tracks together to create the final recording.

Side Effects of Creating Audio Message Tracks

Side Effects of Creating Message ScriptsFor each of the self-help subjects that you target in your recordings, you will need to properly design and write the message script.

It may take anywhere from a few hours to several days to refine it so that the statements have the greatest impact.

The message script will of course have to be either recorded or generated as an audio segment.

Several copies of this audio clip will need to be sequentially mixed in order to achieve the desired message track length.

As you build the message track, you will be exposed to each of the statements in the script repeatedly, often to the point where they may become almost annoying to listen to.

If you find this happening to you, it is best that you take a break or switch to a different aspect of the recording creation process, or even work on a different recording subject.

The suggested reason for this is that if you are unable to focus clearly on what you are doing, then you are more likely to make a mistake and the quality of your recording may suffer.

The other side-effect you will likely be aware of is that repeated listening to the messages may affect you with respect to the target subject. If the topic you selected for example was overcoming the fear of heights, then you may become less fearful of heights, but only if two conditions are true.

First, you would have to already have a fear of heights. Regardless of the self-help topic targeted, a problem cannot be resolved if it does not already exist. This is an important principle you should remember not just for yourself, but for your listeners as well.

The second condition is that even though you will be listening to the messages repeatedly over the course of perhaps several days, it may still not be long enough to impact your own subconscious. Even after progressing through the mixing process in creating the final recording, this can still hold true.

As a creator, you have the option of not listening once the recording is completed. Your listeners, on the other hand, will choose to listen to the recording frequently and perhaps for weeks or months until it achieves the desired affect.

Side Effects of Creating Brainwave Audio Tracks

If you choose to create paraliminal recordings, then it is very likely that you will incorporate a brainwave audio track to introduce an alpha, theta or delta state, or a mixture of these.

Side Effects of Creating Brainwave Sound TracksThe purpose of a brainwave track is to induce an altered state of mind so that the message track becomes more acceptable to the subconscious.

These tracks can be significantly more powerful than simply using a relaxing sound track to achieve this state.

You will usually have to create and listen to different versions of brainwave audio tracks until you are satisfied that you are obtaining the desired effect.

When doing this, you should be aware of the two possible consequences.

By listening to a brainwave track repeatedly, and even not in conjunction with the message track, it can render you so relaxed that you are unable to focus clearly on building your recording.

You may find yourself listening to the track and forgetting about what you were intending to accomplish. For this reason, it is suggested that you restrict your exposure to any brainwave track to a minimum.

Even if the track you are creating is designed to move between different states (alpha, theta, delta), you need only listen to each segment for at most a few minutes.

The other consequence of listening is only relevant if you have a neurological condition such as incidents of epilepsy or similar conditions.

If you have any form of neurological problem, it strongly advised that you consult with your doctor before attempting to expose yourself to brainwave recordings.

Doing so may trigger seizures or other undesirable effects. This is not only important to you, but also your potential recording listeners and you should provide a disclaimer in your recording descriptions so that they are aware of this. This will also help protect you from a legal perspective.

Side Effects of Mixing Message, Masking and Brainwave Audio Tracks

Side Effects of Mixing and Building Message and Brainwave Audio Tracks

Designing and building the individual message, sound and possibly brainwave audio tracks is a major step forward in creating any type of subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal audio recording.

Additional time is necessary when mixing the tracks together and adjusting volume levels until you are satisfied with the final recording version.

The side effects of listening to each component audio track become even more augmented and you should be aware of this.

It is important that you listen to the intermediate versions of your recording, but this doesn’t mean that you need to do so all in one session. Pace yourself and review your recording components or revised versions in moderation.

In conclusion, building subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal audio recordings can affect you personally. But if you are aware of the potential side-effects and manage yourself appropriately, then these will not affect you undesirably.

As a subliminal creator, it is vital that you also be a listener and understand the potential side-effects of what is being listened to.

(c) Copyright – B. James Kudlak. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

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Using Standards for Creating Subliminals

Standards for Creating Subliminal Audio RecordingsBefore you begin creating subliminals and mixing your message, sound, masking or brainwave tracks, it is important that you adopt standards with respect to their recording characteristics.

Each audio component should be digitally recorded in the same manner so that it is easier to mix your final recording and reuse them in future recordings.

Regardless of what method you use to create or mix the different audio clips needed for your recording, each has certain attributes relating to the digital audio file type, sample size, number of channels and the sampling rate.

Even if a recorded audio clip was not recorded digitally, it will have to be converted to digital and the same characteristics should be used.

Why Use Standards to Build Subliminal Recordings?

It requires effort on your part to create each audio component and mix them together so that you end up with the type of recording desired. By adopting standards you will exert less effort in creating your recordings.

Recording Standards for Building Subliminal TracksThe reason for this is it will not be necessary to convert each one into a common format before mixing them.

An advantage you gain by doing this is time and the disadvantage is that it may require additional storage space.

Given a choice between the two, and the continuing reduction in the cost of memory and storage devices, it is much more cost effective to adopt a standard format for each of your audio recording components.

There is another benefit in that when you decide to reuse an existing audio component, such as a message clip or brainwave track, you will not need to convert it before using it in a new recording.

Standards for Building Subliminal Audio Files

There are different file formats that can store digital audio clips, but the suggested one to use is the WAV format. This represents audio that is stored in an uncompressed digital format and is widely accepted.

Storing Subliminal Audio RecordingsStoring your recorded or generated audio segments in a compressed format such as MP3 is not initially recommended.

This should only be done after the final recording is built and only after careful consideration as to compression quality issues.

A WAV file is a digital representation of the audio clip, but an MP3, OGG or other compressed format is actually a data file that describes to a digital player how to play the file.

They are completely different and any compressed file will have to be converted back into WAV or another format in order for mixing.

Also, a WAV file retains the original audio characteristics of the clip, whereas a compressed version sounding virtually identical can result in a loss of audio information.

Each time you mix or combine different audio clips for your final recording, using compressed versions of them means that you are could be reducing the desired effect of your recording.

Using the WAV audio file type for all of your initial and intermediate recording components almost guarantees that the subliminal messages will be audible, and at the desired low level of volume.

If you were to compress each of your audio segments, then it is possible that you could lose some quality with respect to the subliminal messages as you progressively mixed the audio components together.

Audio Digital Sampling Rates and Sample Size

A standard music CD or Compact Disc is a digital representation of the original and attempts to reproduce it in the best way. This is done by sampling the original analog recording at extremely frequent intervals and converting those samples into numbers that a computer sound processor can understand and reproduce.

Audio Digital Sampling RatesIn order to achieve the best sounding digital recording, both the number of times per second the recording is sampled and the size of the sample are important.

For a CD recording, the sample rate is 44,100 times per second (44.1 KHz) and each sample represents a number.

That number can have approximately 64,000 different values and is stored as a 16 digit binary number.

It is suggested that you use the same sample rate and sample size when creating each of your recording audio segments. This will prevent any loss of quality as you progress to mixing your final recording.

Even though it may seem to be inefficient to store your recording segments using these attributes, it is likely to your benefit. The additional sound, masking or even brainwave audio tracks must be recorded at a high standard.

Since you will have to eventually mix all of these components together, adopting a standard format will save you time.

Using Mono or Stereo Audio Channels

It is tempting to record or generate all your message, masking, sound or brainwave tracks using either one or two sound channels, but this should depend on the nature of the individual recording component.

Subliminal Recording ChannelsUsing both left and right channels for any audio segment of your recording means that it will require double the amount of storage space.

Only certain tracks or mixtures of them should be built in stereo. For audio message clips, it is suggested that they be created only using one track.

The reason for doing this is that they may be later mixed in different manners for another recording. You may choose to build an audio message segment using both left and right channels for one of your recordings.

If recorded in mono, then you can easily later combine them in any way desired, but if they were in stereo, then you would have to separate them. Doing this would only add additional effort to what you want to accomplish.

The secondary advantage is that mono recording segments use only half as much storage as stereo audio segments.

To summarize, using a standard set of characteristics when creating your subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal recordings will save you time and reduce any effort involved in converting between different audio formats.

It will also enable you to reuse any of the audio clips that you have already created and may desire to use in creating a new recording.

The standards you may wish to adopt when creating your recording components are suggested as follows:

  • Record basic and intermediate audio segments in the WAV format
  • Suggested digital sample size should be 16-bits
  • The preferred sample frequency is 44,100 Hz.
  • Basic audio message segments should be recorded in mono

Following these suggestions should only help you to create better recordings, but more importantly to save storage space and to organize your audio recording components more efficiently.

(c) Copyright – B. James Kudlak. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

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Mixing Subliminal Audio Tracks

One of the most important aspects when creating either a subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal audio recording is to ensure that the volume or amplitude of the message, sound, masking or brainwave tracks be set at the correct level. This article discusses what these levels should be and why the quality of your recording depends on it.

Although not exactly the same as loudness, amplitude is closely related to it and is measured using the decibel scale. Once you have created the supporting tracks to be used in the final recording, the amplitude or decibel level of each will have to be adjusted before mixing the tracks together. How this is done is dependent on the type of recording and is completely different for subliminal, supraliminal and paraliminal recordings.

Subliminal Recordings and Amplitude

By definition, a subliminal recording is a mixture of two audio tracks, one presenting the message statements and a second that acts as a masking track. The messages must be perceptible by the brain, but not quite audible to the conscious mind. The masking track is completely audible and also acts to make the recording sound more interesting to the ear.

When you first build the audio message track, it should be at a normal level of volume and this is necessary in order to verify that the message statements have been created properly. It is also important that whether you record your own message statements or generate them using text-to-speech software that they sound consistent.

By consistent it is meant that the amplitude or loudness of each statement be at the same level. Also, the speed and manner in which the message statements are presented should be reasonably slow and sound calm and relaxing. The best strategy when creating the message track is to pretend that you are talking to a young child.

The masking audio track should also be consistent and be relaxing to the listener. Sound clips that are erratic in volume and have many highs and lows in loudness are not recommended in any way. Using relaxing music or nature sounds is a much better choice.

Once you have built both the audio message and masking sound tracks and are satisfied with them, you will have to consider adjusting their level of volume or amplitude before mixing them together to create the final recording. The difference in amplitude between the message track and the masking track should be approximately 15 decibels, but this can vary either way by several decibels.

A common mistake made by people new to creating subliminal recordings and unfortunately even some companies that sell them is that they reduce the amplitude of the message track by too large a degree. Instead of reducing it by 15 decibels, it may be lowered it by as much as 30 to 40 decibels. In doing so, they may make the message statements physically inaudible and effectively render the final recording useless.

The software program you choose in mixing your message and masking tracks will provide you with the ability to adjust amplitude levels and it may take repeated attempts before you arrive at just the right sound levels. Even though the software is precise in how this is done, the best judge should still be your ears.

It is suggested that you listen to each track and the potential final mixed recording repeatedly until you are satisfied that the messages can be heard and that they are not overwhelmed by the masking sound track. It will likely be necessary to greatly increase the volume of the sound system of your computer in order to do this.

Supraliminal Recordings and Amplitude

With a supraliminal recording, both the message track and the accompanying sound track are designed to be completely audible. It is also important that the message track include a short initial segment designed to relax the body and optionally, the mind of the listener.

But even though both the message and accompanying sound track should be audible, it does not mean that they should be mixed at the same level of amplitude. This is an often overlooked point when building supraliminal recordings.

As with a subliminal audio recording, both the message and sound tracks should be created in the best way possible. Aside from the additional introductory relaxation segment in the message track, there is no difference between a subliminal and supraliminal recording except for the amplitude levels of the supporting audio tracks.

How they are mixed is important and it is suggested that you adjust the amplitude of each track appropriately. If you have created both the message and sound tracks properly, then they should each be consistent in how they sound. They will likely be at approximately the same level of amplitude or loudness.

But before mixing the message and sound tracks together it is advised that you adjust the amplitude of the message track. The message statements should be audible, but they should seem almost like someone was politely and calmly speaking to you as you were falling asleep.

If the message track was created by applying the guidelines suggested previously for subliminal recordings, then it should be calm, relaxing and consistent. The same principles apply to the sound track that you decide to include in the final recording.

For a supraliminal recording the message track should be reduced in amplitude by approximately 5 decibels. The reason for doing this is so that even though both the message and sound tracks are audible, the message track will sound more comforting to the listener at slightly lower amplitude.

Paraliminal Recordings and Amplitude

A paraliminal recording is considerably different than a subliminal or supraliminal recording. It normally includes three or more different audio tracks instead of the two that are commonly used in subliminal or supraliminal recordings. The additional track included is a brainwave track and it is designed to induce a relaxed mental state by using binaural tones.

The brainwave track must be created using two channels or in stereo because it is usually necessary to present different sound frequencies to each ear in order to achieve the desired effect. The desired effect is to induce a state of mind so that the listener experiences an alpha, theta or delta brain experience. By doing so, the listener becomes more receptive to the message statements presented in the audio message track.

Each of the other audio tracks must also be created in stereo, because if one must be in stereo then the others must also be built in the same manner. The tracks included in the final recording must always be built using two channels.

The three tracks required, message, sound and brainwave, should also be adjusted with respect to their amplitude before mixing the final recording. The audio message track should be slightly lower in amplitude than the sound track by approximately 5 decibels.

The brainwave track should be slightly be above audible perception and be at least 20 decibels lower in amplitude than the sound track. The reason for doing this is that the binaural tones presented in the brainwave track can become irritating to the listener and there is no benefit in doing so.

Again, the best way to judge the volume or amplitude levels of each of the recording components is to listen carefully before you decide to mix them together.

In conclusion, it is highly important that you mix each of your supporting audio tracks in the best way possible. Part of this involves adjusting the volume, loudness or amplitude of them before attempting to mix them together when creating your final recording. Doing this may require additional time, but it is usually worth the effort involved and likely that the recordings you create will be more satisfying to your listeners.

About the Author

James Kudlak specializes in writing articles and building websites across a variety of topics such as online dating, paternity issues or insurance. Visit one of his newer website creations relating to pet insurance at http://petcarehealthinsurance.com/ which helps people select among the many Pet Insurance Companies available.

(c) Copyright – B. James Kudlak. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

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Using a Storage Strategy for Creating Subliminal RecordingsOne of the primary aspects of building a subliminal or related audio recording type involves managing each of the components.

Message scripts, masking sound clips, brainwave tracks and intermediate audio tracks should be organized and stored in an efficient manner.

Adopting a useful storage strategy makes it simpler to access and review any existing recording component. This is especially important when attempting to reuse existing elements for a new and different recording project.

Any reasonable and effective strategy can be used for storing the components of the recordings. At the highest level, a new folder should be created called RECORDING PROJECTS and within this, sub-folders created that reflect each of the categories suggested below.

  • Recording Project Name
  • Message Script Versions
  • Verbal Message Clips
  • Intermediate Message Segments
  • Sound and Masking Tracks
  • Brainwave Audio Tracks
  • Final Recording Versions
  • Compressed Audio Versions

Choosing the Recording Project Name

Subliminal Recording Project NameIt is important to choose a project name for a recording because the target name chosen becomes a focal point for each of the related components and makes it easier to locate them in the future.

If for example the selected recording target subject was Better Study Habits, then the project name could be the same and this is strongly recommended.

It is worthwhile to choose a short abbreviation for the project name and this should be based on the recording subject to make it easy to remember.

For this example of Better Study Habits, by using the first letter of each word the result is BSH. This short contraction can be used as the project prefix when naming most files in each of the steps when designing a self-help recording.

Message Script Versions

Designing a subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal message script can take time and involve creating multiple versions. Each version should be saved because it is often difficult to determine which would be optimal.

Designing Message ScriptsMessage scripts begin as simple text files and starting with the first basic version, this should be an ordinary text file with the extension .TXT.

But there will likely be two types of message scripts; one for inducing relaxation and another for the subliminal message statements targeting the self-help goal.

Distinguishing between the two types can be accomplished by grouping them into separate folders that reflect their purpose such as RELAXATION and TARGET.

These can be included within a more general folder named MESSAGE_SCRIPTS. As the message scripts are further refined, it is suggested to save and name each version by adding the project contraction as a prefix and a version number as a suffix, such as BSH1.TXT, BSH2.TXT, etc.

By including the project prefix and version number in the file name, it is easier to remember which script is associated with any particular project.

Verbal Message Clips

Once the message script is designed satisfactorily, it will be required to either record it or generate it as a verbal audio segment. In either instance, it may be necessary to create multiple versions until the desired quality level is attained and the target goal should always be of primary importance.

Target Goal for Subliminal MessagesRegardless of how the final message script is converted into an audio format, it is important to understand that storing these different versions is highly important.

Verbal message sound clips should be stored in a folder that reflects their function.

This is suggested as VERBAL_MESSAGE_CLIPS. This would still be inside the project folder and serve to organize them efficiently.

These could be further categorized by separating them by function, as RECORDED_MESSAGES and GENERATED_MESSAGES, depending on how this is accomplished.

Within these folders, and using the same example project prefix, each of the recorded or generated sound message clips could be named as BSH_RECORDED1.WAV, BSH_RECORDED2.WAV, BSH_GENERATED1.WAV, BSH_GENERATED2.WAV, etc., and stored in the relevant folders.

Further categorization may be useful if using text-to-speech (TTS) software to generate verbal message clips. The type of voice engine and the voices chosen to do this may warrant separation by both these qualifiers.

Intermediate Message Segments

In the process of building the final audio subliminal (or similar) message track, it will be necessary to combine or mix the previously created individual verbal message clips in potentially different ways.

Mixing Audio and Subliminal MessagesWhen doing this, several intermediate versions will have to be created and it is important to save each one accordingly.

It is recommended to create a unique sub-folder or directory in which to store them.

In this way, the basic verbal message clips will not be confused with the intermediate audio message segments that become a mixture of them.

A suggestion is to place these intermediate audio segments in a folder or directory named INTERMEDIATE_MESSAGE_SEGMENTS. Also, each file created should be named so that it incorporates the project prefix and a version number.

A basic subliminal recording could have an introductory verbal relaxation segment followed by repeated verbal message segments.

After mixing them together appropriately, an intermediate version could be named BSH_MESSAGE1.WAV, BSH_MESSAGE2.WAV, etc.

Sound and Masking Tracks

A sound or masking track is a requirement for any recording type and must also be managed in a useful manner. As an advantage, the same sound track can effectively be used in different recordings.

Using Masking Sound TracksFor this reason, it is better to create a reasonable number of masking tracks that can be used in any type of recording.

However, there are personal preferences as to what sounds are acceptable and presenting more choices is always advisable.

A recommended strategy is to create and maintain a small number of sound tracks that can be used with respect to virtually any of the recordings.

A suggested folder for storing them is SOUND_TRACKS, whether recorded or generated in any manner.

Within the sound track folder, each file can be named according to the type of sound presented, such as NATURE1.WAV, WATERFALL2.WAV, BIRDS3.WAV, etc.

Brainwave Audio Tracks

Brainwave Recording OptionsA brainwave track is only necessary if you choose to create a paraliminal recording and as with the sound or masking tracks, it will likely only require creating a few different brainwave tracks.

These audio tracks should be kept in a separate folder and a suggested name is BRAINWAVE_TRACKS.

The brainwave related audio files should be named according to the effect they are designed to produce, such as ALPHA.WAV, THETA.WAV or possibly some mixture as ALPHA_THETA.WAV.

Final Recording Versions

Once the final recording is mixed by using the message track, sound track and potential brainwave track, it may still not be entirely complete and could require additional revisions and adjustments.

For this reason, creating a folder called FINAL_RECORDING should include each newly created version.

These could be named as in the prior example as BSH_FINAL_VERSION1.WAV, BSH_FINAL_VERSION2.WAV, etc.

Although it may consume more storage space, one or more versions of the final recording in the WAV format should always be saved.

Compressed Audio Versions

After creating the final subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal recording, it is important to consider the importance of compressing the audio recording in order to render it smaller in size while still retaining the same degree of quality.

Compressing the Audio SegmentsThere are several different methods available to compress the final recording, and in doing so, a different result will be created.

To accommodate this, it is suggested to create a separate folder or directory named COMPRESSED that includes these.

The files within this folder that are compressed may be of different types and as a result have different file extensions such as MP3, OGG, etc.

These files could be stored as BSH_FINAL1_COMPRESSED.MP3, BSH_FINAL2_COMPRESSED.OGG, and thus make it easier to distinguish between the original final recording and the compressed versions.

Suggested Storage Strategy for Recording Components

There are many ways to adopt a storage strategy for creating a subliminal or similar audio recording and an optimal one is provided below.

  • Recording Projects (Top-Level Folder) 
    • Project Name (e.g. Better Study Habits – BSH)
      • Message Scripts (MESSAGE_SCRIPTS)
        • Relaxation Scripts (RELAX)
        • Target Scripts (TARGET)
      • Verbal Message Clips (VERBAL_MESSAGE_CLIPS)
      • Intermediate Message Clips (INTERMEDIATE_MESSAGE_SEGMENTS)
      • Sound and Masking Tracks (SOUND_TRACKS)
      • Brainwave Audio Tracks (BRAINWAVE_TRACKS)
      • Final Recording Versions (FINAL_RECORDING)
      • Compressed Audio Versions (COMPRESSED)

It is important to manage each of the components used in creating the recordings. Using a folder or directory structure to organize recordings and their components can only help to create better recordings and in an easier manner.

(c) Copyright – B. James Kudlak. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

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Downloading Subliminal Masking SoundsThere are different ways to acquire suitable sound clips to use in a building a masking or accompanying sound track for a subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal recording.

One option is to download them from various Internet web sites for free or perhaps at some cost.

What features to look for in an acceptable sound clip should be reviewed before deciding on any particular one.

The preferred features of an acceptable sound clip are grouped into the following categories and each is discussed below:

  • Type of Masking Sounds Available
  • Costs Involved
  • Recording Characteristics
  • Audio Format
  • Absence of Embedded Messages

Type of Masking Sounds Available

Generally, many of the sound segments available have been created using nature sounds. Audio clips of this type are highly recommended, since nature sounds are normally very relaxing to most people.

Types of Masking Sounds AvailableExamples of this could present ocean waves, rainfalls, waterfalls, birds or insects or various other types of sounds.

Other possible types include chimes, bells, classical music, rhythmic chanting, or a range of other themes.

As long as the recorded sound clip is relaxing and soothing, then it is most likely acceptable.

By this it is meant that there should not be any extreme high or low volume levels in the recording and that it should sound reasonably consistent.

The goal is to seek out a pre-recorded audio clip that would not upset the listener in any way and promotes a more relaxed physical and mental state.

Any personal preferences regarding the type of sounds presented in the audio clip should be put aside if you are creating recordings for other people.

As a recording creator, it is far more important that to consider what the potential listener would prefer to hear.

But if you are creating recordings primarily for your own use, then you should of course choose what is most suitable for you. As long as the sound clip is soothing, calm and relaxing, then you have likely made the right choice.

Even so, it is suggested that you remember that what is acceptable to you may not be to others.

Costs Involved for Sound Clips

You may choose to download free audio sound clips, but you should be extremely careful in how you select them. Most are usually short in length and not recorded in high quality.

Cost of Subliminal Masking Sound ClipsBut it is possible that you could find an acceptable free pre-recorded audio segment of reasonable quality, if you are patient and willing to search for them.

There are also many sound clips available if you are willing to pay the cost of obtaining them.

These can vary greatly in price but there is no reason to purchase an entire collection of relaxing nature sounds if you only require a few audio clips.

Another important consideration is whether there are royalty fees charged if you decided to purchase the sound clips and use them in building your masking or sound tracks.

Ideally, there should be no charge for doing so, and consequently it is extremely important to understand this.

Recording Characteristics of Sound Clips

Whether purchased or free of charge, the recorded clips should have certain physical characteristics.

This relates to the sampling frequency, the sample size, number of channels, and the recording format. It is assumed that the recorded clip has been created in a digital manner.

Sound Clip Recording CharacteristicsThe sampling frequency can vary greatly, but the preferred choice is 44,100 Hz. which is the same as that of a standard music CD.

Although sound clips can be created at a lower frequency, anything below 16,000 Hz is likely unacceptable.

The sample size is also important in that a 16-bit sample rate provides greater listening quality than an 8-bit sampling rate.

A recording that uses an 8-bit sample rate is approximately of the same quality as a telephone conversation. One that is encoded using 16-bit sample rate simply sounds better and this is preferred.

Selecting an audio sound clip that has been recorded with two channels (left and right) is a better choice than a mono recording.

Although twice as large in size, the recording may sound better with two different channels and be more entertaining for the listener.

Audio Format

Although there are various audio formats available, any one chosen should be uncompressed and have been recorded digitally. The preferred type is a recording clip that has been saved in the WAV format.

Compressed Audio FormatRecordings in the WAV format are uncompressed but still in a digital format.

Obtaining any type of sound clips that have already been compressed into an MP3, OGG or other type can make it more difficult to mix audio tracks in the final recording.

It is possible to compress recording components before building and mixing the final subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal recording, but this is not recommended.

The best time to apply audio compression techniques is after the recording has been finally mixed.

However, if you decide to obtain a recorded audio sound clip in a compressed format (e.g. MP3, OGG), it will have to be decompressed in order to mix it with other aspects of your final recording.

This can be reasonably easy to do with the proper audio mixing software, but should be avoided if possible.

Absence of Embedded Messages

Embedded Subliminal MessagesNo matter where the audio sound segments are obtained from, they must not contain embedded subliminal messages.

If they do, then this can affect the final recording and its ability to help the listener.

If you choose to purchase a sound clip or track, it is highly unlikely that it will contain any embedded subliminal messages.

However, if you download one at no cost then you should consider it possible that subliminal messages may have been planted in the recorded clip.

The easiest way to detect if embedded messages exist in a recording is to simply play the sound clip at a higher volume level and listen carefully.

To summarize, there are various choices available with respect to selecting a pre-recorded sound clip. You can download either free or not so free sound clips that can be used in building a masking or sound track.

As long as you cautious and observe these guidelines, it should be more than possible to find an audio sound clip that meets your needs.

There are also other options available such as recording or generating your own sound tracks which may be of benefit.

(c) Copyright – B. James Kudlak. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

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Designing a message script for a subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal recording is vital to ensuring that the message statements will achieve the desired target effect.

Targeting the Subliminal Goal with Correct Tenses

One aspect of this involves understanding how to use tenses properly and a second equally important, is the correct use of directive and permissive statements.

Both these concepts are explained in detail and will help greatly in the overall process of designing and creating a high quality self-help audio recording in the best manner possible.

Understanding the Present Tense in a Message Script

Messages statements written in the present tense act to suggest that the desired condition already exists, such as “I am confident” or “I am wealthy”.

Statements in the near or present future style indicate that the target goal is in the process of being achieved as for example, “I am becoming more confident” or “I am becoming wealthier”.

Present Time and Message Script MessagesBoth the present and near future tenses can be used when designing message statements but it is important to understand the differences between these.

Ideally, it would be preferable to use one or the other type of these tenses exclusively.

But this is highly dependent upon understanding the subconscious mind of the potential listener.

Different Subconscious Minds Require Different Tenses

The subconscious mind of one person may be less receptive to change than another. Even for one particular individual their subconscious resistance may vary among topics.

A person who is wealthy but overweight may have no difficulty embracing subliminal messages targeting abundance but could be highly resistant to statements suggesting weight loss.

Those with higher subconscious resistance to change would be less likely to be affected by message statements in the present tense. Using a statement such as “I am confident” may not have as powerful an effect as desired.

A person that has lower subconscious resistance may find the same message statement more acceptable. Using message statements that are in the near future tense such as “I am becoming more confident” will likely have more impact on those with a stronger subconscious resistance to change.

Balancing a Message Script with Multiple Tenses

Subconscious Mind ChoicesIf you could completely and fully understood exactly what the subconscious mind of the target listener contained, it would be much easier to know which tense to use and when.

Unfortunately this is virtually impossible, even when designing a custom subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal recording for a specific individual that you know extremely well, which may even be yourself.

The best that can be achieved is to compromise and use both tenses. Since it is likely not possible to determine the subconscious resistance level of a potential listener, a reasonable choice is to use both and in a balanced manner.

Instead of using either present or near future tenses exclusively, each should be used in equal frequency and in an alternating fashion. In this manner both the resistant and not so resistant subconscious minds of any potential listeners are targeted.

Using Permissive and Directive Message Statements

Another aspect that is equally important when designing message statements relates to how permissive or directive they are. This is similar to using either the present or near future tense but still relatively different.

Command Message StatementA target listener may be more receptive to message statements that command them to be or perform some action.

Other listeners may subconsciously require permission before embracing any messages.

A directive statement will serve to command the subconscious mind to adopt the message statement.

A permissive statement will only suggest that the idea is acceptable and then present it accordingly.

An example of a normal message statement in the present tense is “I am confident”. A directive and more commanding statement would be “I am confident now and always”.

The tense is the same, but the manner in which the statement is phrased is significantly more commanding.

A permissive example of this would be “I allow myself to be confident”. Instead of commanding, the statement merely suggests to the subconscious that it is acceptable to permit oneself to be more confident.

Since it is not possible to probe the subconscious mind of the target listener, the obvious and preferred choice is to use both permissive and directive statement types in the message script.

By doing so, both types are targeted and balancing them correctly will only render the final message script more effective for a greater number of people.

Avoid Using the Future Tense in Message Statements

Using the near future tense with respect to “I am becoming” is acceptable, but including message statements such as “I will become” is not advisable.

The future tense should never be used because it implies that the desired goal will always be out of reach.

Message Scripts Statement to Use NowIt is effortless for the conscious mind to consider a statement in the future tense.

But the subconscious mind is much simpler and does not have the ability to understand anything beyond what is occurring in the present moment.

A message statement worded as “I will become more confident” implies that the goal will only be achieved at some point in the future.

For the subconscious mind that future never arrives, and it is thus far better to always avoid using the future tense in any message script statements.

Tenses or Directive or Permissive Statements – Suggestions

Consider one of the original statements presented above, “I am confident” and how adopting the suggested tenses and using directive and permissive statements may result in variations.

With only one message statement as a start, there are six different variations of it that could be used as indicated below.

  • Present only: “I am confident”
  • Present and directive: “I am confident now and always”
  • Present and permissive: “I allow myself to be confident”
  • Near future only: “I am becoming more confident”
  • Near future and directive: “I am becoming more confident in every way”
  • Near future and permissive: “I allow myself to become more confident”

It is important to note that these are variations of just one message script statement, and it is strongly suggested to consider using other statements that target a similar topic using the suggested permutations.

Understanding the importance of different tenses and directive or permissive statements will only help you to design and write more effective message scripts.

Doing so will also ensure that your subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal recordings are more effective for the target subject, and for a greater variety of listeners, no matter how resistant their subconscious minds may be.

(c) Copyright – B. James Kudlak. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

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Including Sub-Themes and Addressing Subconscious BlocksWhen designing a subliminal message script it is important to consider including sub-theme messages related to the topic chosen.

A sub-theme is any underlying issue that may be indirectly contributing to the problem because of existing subconscious blocks.

Even though it is preferable to design and create your message script statements in the best way possible, you cannot always be certain that you are entirely targeting the root of the problem.

Secondary issues pertaining to self-image, allowing change and loving oneself may be embedded in the subconscious mind of the potential listener.

Addressing Secondary Issues in a Message Script

For example, a person seeking to become fit and lose weight may possibly have one or more deeper subconscious blocks that prevent them from achieving their goal.

Sub-Themes and Secondary Issues in Message ScriptA negative experience from early childhood such as having been repeatedly told that they will always be overweight may be even carried with them into adulthood.

They may feel subconsciously that they will always be unattractive, never be able to change, no one will ever love them and have low self-esteem.

They could try many possible methods to overcome this, but each may be met with resistance by the subconscious mind unless the underlying issues or sub-themes are also addressed.

There is no certain method of determining the subconscious issues or sub-themes someone else may have, and the best strategy is to include the most important sub-issues appropriately.

These include message statements that pertain to love and forgiveness, embracing change and positive self-image.

Message Statements for Love and Forgiveness

Sub Theme Message Script Statement of Love and ForgivenessA few message statements relating to loving oneself should always be included in your message script, and preferably at the beginning.

The reason for doing this is to make the subconscious mind more receptive to the subsequent messages targeting the chosen subject.

This should also include statements of forgiveness in that it is allowable to having made mistakes in the past and permissible to let go of them. Some suggested statements that you could use are as follows:

  • I love and respect myself completely
  • I love myself more with each passing day
  • I forgive myself for my mistakes
  • I let go of my problems easily

Inserting some of these statements in your message script will not detract from helping address the target subject and will only help resolve any potential underlying issues.

Message Statements for Embracing Changes

Message Statements for Embracing ChangeAllowing oneself to change can be at times difficult, especially if the subconscious mind resists change of any type.

Adding a few statements to your message script that target this is strongly advised.

The purpose of these additional subliminal message statements is to suggest that change is allowed and embraced.

Examples of what you can and may wish to include are as follows:

  • I allow myself to change
  • It is acceptable for changes to happen in my life  
  • I embrace changes in my life
  • Changes in my life are good for me

You need only consider including two or three statements in your message script that address this. These can be placed at any point in the script, but again it is suggested that you place them close to the beginning to reduce resistance from the subconscious mind to the subject messages that follow.

Message Script Statements for Positive Self-Image

Positive Images for Subliminal Message ScriptsOne of the most important sub-issues that you should address involves self-image.

Many people having the problem that your recording will target may feel less than positive about themselves.

Including message statements that help them feel accepted at the subconscious level is strongly suggested.

It will also indicate to their subconscious mind that they are worthy and render it easier for the subject messages to be received. A few statements you may wish to include are below.

  • I feel good about myself
  • I can do anything I set my mind on 
  • I am worthy of success
  • I am confident in my abilities

As with the other suggested statements about love and forgiveness or embracing change, these can be placed at the beginning of the message script. Another idea is to place them randomly within the script so that occasional positive messages targeting self-image are presented.

Combining Sub-Theme Messages with the Target Subject

Addressing sub-themes in you message script may seem to be nowhere near as important as addressing the target subject.

Sub-themes and Message ScriptsHowever, they should still be included as part of your message script design.

Another important consideration is the number of sub-theme statements included in the final script.

Several statements that address each of the important sub-issues such as self-love, forgiveness, embracing change and self-image should be included.

You can choose from any of the suggested ones above, or include those of your own.

But it is important that these sub-issues not dominate the message script and act only to support underlying issues.

If your final message script contains between the suggested 60 and 70 statements then a portion of these should be focused on sub-theme issues.

Including about 10 statements for sub-issues is reasonable and represents only about 15% of the total number of statements.

If you were to add perhaps six statements at the beginning of the script and inserted a few more self-image suggestions then your message script may appear as follows:

  • I love and respect myself completely
  • I forgive myself for my mistakes
  • I let go of my problems easily
  • I allow myself to change
  • It is acceptable for changes to happen in my life 
  • I embrace changes in my life
  • SUBJECT MESSAGES
  • ….
  • ….
  • I am confident in my abilities
  • SUBJECT MESSAGES
  • ….
  • ….
  • I am worthy of success in every way
  • SUBJECT MESSAGES
  • ….
  • ….
  • I feel good about myself
  • SUBJECT MESSAGES
  • ….
  • ….
  • I can do anything I set my mind on
  • SUBJECT MESSAGES
  • … 

This should not be difficult to do and will help your listeners, even if they do not have underlying target issues. Remember also that your message script, whether subliminal or any other type, will be repeated several times when you create the final message audio track.

By including these sub-themes you are also providing an additional form of insurance that your recording will help achieve the desired effect.

Understanding and targeting sub-issues that may contribute to the problem that you message script addresses is important both to you as a creator and to your audience. You may even wish to create a subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal audio recording that specifically address any of these sub-issues.

As long as you understand that underlying issues may exist in your target listener, then you should choose to include additional message statements that can help them. If you do then your recordings will only be of a higher quality and likely more appreciated by your audience.

(c) Copyright – B. James Kudlak. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

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Choosing the Right Subliminal Recording Type

Selecting Subliminal Recording TypeChoosing the correct type of audio subliminal recording type involves more than simply selecting one that targets the goal you wish to achieve.

Ideally, the type of recording you select should also match your lifestyle and your habits.

Knowing how the recording types differ will help you to make the best choice for your particular situation.

The more informed your decision is, the more likely the recording chosen will help you achieve your goal.

Not all subliminal recordings are truly subliminal in that they contain verbal messages that are almost inaudible and masked by an audible relaxing sound track.

Supraliminal recordings contain messages that are completely audible and usually include an initial guided relaxation segment.

Another type, paraliminal, is more complex and can include additional sound tracks that induce a specific type of brainwave state such as alpha, theta or variations of these.

Choose One Goal Before Selecting any Recording Type

Each of the three types (subliminal, supraliminal and paraliminal) are quite different, even though they may be designed and built to achieve the same self-help goal. That goal may be weight loss, increased motivation, overcoming addictions, achieving wealth, and many other targets.

Choosing a Goal for Subliminal Message RecordingsEach person has their own personal challenges to deal with and it is not uncommon for anyone seeking solutions to select multiple goals and attempt to use more than one recording to resolve their target issues.

Although it is highly tempting to address more than one problem or issue at the same time, it is far more effective to initially choose the most important change that you seek to achieve and focus on this exclusively.

This can be done by using different subliminal or related recording types, but only if each type targets the same specific goal desired and is appropriate for your individual scenario. Each person is unique and what may work for one person may not be suitable for another.

Depending on your lifestyle at home or at work, one particular type may be better for you than another. It is even possible that you can use all three different types, but there is no reason to do this unless you are certain they are suitable for you.

Choosing Between Power and Convenience   

Subliminal Recording Power to ChooseEach recording type has a different level of power and convenience.

Subliminal recordings are designed so that they do not require you to be in a relaxed setting and can be listened to at anytime.

This includes driving or any activity that requires your conscious focus. Because of this, they are ideal for people that are highly active and have minimal time to relax.

The convenience level for a subliminal recording is higher than that of a supraliminal or paraliminal recording. However, it may take somewhat longer for a subliminal recording to achieve the changes desired.

In terms of power, a subliminal recording is rated third and with respect to convenience, first.

A supraliminal recording should be listened to when you are able to enter a relaxed state, even if only for a short period. They should never be listened to when you need to be conscious and alert.

Supraliminal Recording MessagesUsing a supraliminal recording when you have a minimum of 30 minutes or more to relax is acceptable and advised.

Because supraliminal recordings require you to relax, they are less convenient but have more power to introduce change to your subconscious mind.

The reason for this is that by introducing relaxation, the conscious mind is less active and the subconscious more likely to accept the messages presented.

As such, supraliminal recordings are considered second with respect to convenience and also second with respect to power to introduce any desired change.

Paraliminal recordings are different from both subliminal and supraliminal recordings in that they require you to be able to relax for a longer period of time.

They are best listened to when you decide to rest for an extended period, and ideally just before you retire to sleep. These recordings usually include multiple tracks presented in stereo. For this reason it is best to listen to them with stereo headphones to enhance their effect.

The convenience level for a paraliminal recording is lower than that of a subliminal or supraliminal recording. The advantage in choosing a paraliminal recording is that it can be more powerful in how it introduces the change desired.

In terms of power, a paraliminal recording is rated first and with respect to convenience, third.

Choosing a Subliminal, Supraliminal or Paraliminal Recording

Asking yourself the following questions may help you to decide which is best for you:

  • Do you spend large amounts of time driving or commuting?
  • Can you listen to a recording while driving or commuting?
  • Do you have short periods of quiet time available to you?
  • Are you able to listen to a recording for only a short period?
  • Can you put on stereo headphones and listen without interruption?
  • If you have a partner, would they mind if you listened to a recording?
  • Can you sleep with stereo headphones without interruption?
  • Are you able to sleep and listen to a recording overnight?

If you spend considerable time traveling to work and back and are able to listen to a recording, then a subliminal recording type is very likely suitable for you.

If you have only a small amount of time (30 minutes) each day that is uninterrupted then you can likely listen to a supraliminal recording. Even if this is only for a short quiet period, it can be of benefit to you.

If you can wear stereo headphones while sleeping, then a paraliminal recording may be ideal, especially if you can sleep without interruption. If you are with a partner, stating to them that is for your benefit may help them understand.

It may be that one or more of the subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal recording types is suitable for you. Only you can decide, so make sure it is what is best for you and focusing on one goal is important.

(c) Copyright – B. James Kudlak. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

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Subliminal Recordings and Left-Handedness

Create Subliminal Recording Messages for Left-Handed PeopleAny subliminal or similar recording should help as many potential listeners as possible.

But some of us are left-handed and represent ten percent of the population.

Left-handed people usually have different brain structures and this can affect how you create your audio message tracks.

This article discusses the differences in left-handed individuals and how to design your recordings to target them with minimal effort.

Brain Hemispheres and Left-Handedness

Brain Hemisphere Structure and Left HandednessEach individual has two separate brains or hemispheres that have different functions.

In most people that are right-handed, the left side of their brain or hemisphere is better equipped in dealing with language, reasoning, planning and organization.

The right brain or hemisphere is described as being more skilled with visual images, intuition and creative abilities involving art or music.

For left-handed people, the scenario may be quite different. These individuals may have some of those skills reversed.

Their language skills may be centered in the right hemisphere of their brain instead of the left hemisphere.

Some of your potential listeners may have this characteristic and it is important to understand this before building your audio message track.

This can be significant because people that are left-handed may respond differently to the audio messages, depending on how the recording is mixed.

Recording Types and Brain Hemispheres

Creating a stereo recording is the only way to direct audio messages specifically to either the right or left brain of the listener. This is done by building the left channel differently from the right channel. It is usually necessary that the listener be using stereo headphones so that they can perceive the difference.

Building Stereo or Mono Subliminal Audio RecordingsWhen building either a subliminal or supraliminal recording you will have to decide whether to create it in mono or stereo.

It is important to remember that if the final recording is in stereo and mixed from multiple audio tracks, then each of these supporting tracks must also be in stereo.

If you build a paraliminal recording then it must have two channels because the included brainwave track requires this.

This is because the left and right tracks will present different frequencies to each ear in order to achieve the desired binaural entrainment effect.

Since the message and accompanying sound tracks must also be mixed using two audio channels, this provides an opportunity to present different messages or sounds to either the left or right brain.

But a subliminal or supraliminal recording normally does not include a brainwave track and it is not required to create the message or masking sound tracks in stereo. If built using only one audio channel, these tracks will present exactly the same messages or sounds to each ear and to the left and right brains of the listener.

There are both advantages and disadvantages to building subliminal or paraliminal recordings in stereo. These should be completely understood before attempting to do so.

Advantages of Stereo Subliminal and Supraliminal Audio Recordings

The benefits of building these types of recordings with two audio channels are as follows:

  • Ability to direct specific messages to either the left or right brain
  • Allow for different voices to be presented such as male or female
  • Permit alternating tenses and directive or permissive statements
  • Use different sounds to make the masking track sound more interesting

Targeting Voice Messages to Right EarThe most important of these is that you have the ability to design, build and mix message clips that target either the left or right brain of the listener.

This can be of benefit not only to your general listeners, but also those that are left-handed and have the functions of their brain hemispheres reversed.

Another advantage is that you can include different voices for each of the left and right channels of your message track.

In a message track with one channel, you can alternate between using one voice or another over time. But with a stereo message track you can present both at the same time.

This can be important because certain types of people respond better to messages presented in either a male or female voice.

Stereo subliminal and supraliminal recordings also permit you to use the left and right channels to present messages that have been designed with different tenses or applying directive or permissive statements.

In a mono recording using only one audio channel, the sound or masking track may seem less interesting to the ear of the potential listener. An advantage of creating the sound track in stereo is that different sounds can be presented in each channel. The benefit of this is that the audio sound track used in mixing the final recording may sound more interesting to the listener.

Disadvantages of Stereo Subliminal and Supraliminal Recordings

These advantages will have to be weighed against the disadvantages, which are as follows:

  • The final recording will be twice as large in size
  • Building and mixing each track will usually take more time
  • It is not certain that the final recording will be more effective 

Computer Disk Storage SpaceWhen recording with two channels, the size of the delivered recording and each of the audio clips created will be twice as large.

This is a tradeoff between the quality you wish to provide and the storage space necessary for the final recording and each of the components.

If you choose to build and mix a subliminal or supraliminal audio recording using two channels instead of in mono, you should understand that there is additional effort involved.

Because you will be creating individual audio clips in stereo and combining them together, you will likely need more time to accomplish this.

It is not certain that creating the message or sound tracks in stereo will be of benefit to your potential listeners.

There is no way to be sure that your target listener is left or right-handed or if they have a certain personality type. Also, it is virtually impossible to determine if they have specific issues that can be addressed by employing stereo messages.

Designing Subliminal or Supraliminal Audio Recordings for All

Subliminal Recordings for Left Handed PeopleYou may decide to build audio message or sound tracks for a subliminal or supraliminal recording in stereo based on the information presented here.

But before attempting this, you should understand that there is a tradeoff involved.

By this it is meant that it is almost impossible to provide any type of subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal recording that helps every potential listener.

The best that you can do when creating your recordings is to compromise.

To conclude, people that are left-handed are not that different than others but should still be addressed in how you create your recordings.

You can build your subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal recordings so that it helps as many people as possible, but it may require more knowledge and effort to do this.

(c) Copyright – B. James Kudlak. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

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A masking or accompanying subliminal sound track is important for any type of subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal recording.

Theese can be recorded, obtained for no, little or some cost and also be generated.

This article focuses on generating these subliminal masking sound tracks and provides guidelines as to how to do this in the best manner.

Masking subliminal recordingsIf you decide to generate your sound or masking tracks you will need the basic knowledge as to what to do and in the proper way.

It is necessary that you first consider what is most desired in the sound or masking audio track.

Also important is the software program chosen and the features that it should have.

Sound Track Features

The sound track that you create should be relaxing and soothing and also be consistent in how it sounds.

Software programs can generate these sound clips if you understand what the target characteristics are.

The preferred choice is to use sounds of nature and be able to generate and adjust them in a suitable way.

Nature sounds are highly appealing and the variations of them can be almost infinite.

Waterfall subliminal soundsThere are choices with respect to the sound of rainfalls, waterfalls, babbling brook, thunderstorms, gentle rain, windstorms, and many others.

You should seek to create a small library of reusable and different sounding nature audio clips if possible.

You should also be able to choose secondary sounds so that your masking or sound track is more appealing.

Gentle ocean waves can be relaxing, but using them exclusively can make the sound track seem repetitive and somewhat boring.

Including secondary and random sounds of nature will only serve to make the sound segment seem more appealing to listeners.

Random sounds of birds or insects render the sound clip more interesting to listen to.

Ideal Sound Characteristics

In addition to how the generated audio sounds to the ear, it is also important that it have certain physical characteristics.

The most important of these is that it is possible to save the generated output file in the WAV format. Other compressed formats such as MP3 or OGG are preferable, but not necessary.

Although the WAV output file is larger than a compressed format, using it makes it easier to mix the sound track with other tracks to build the final recording.

There should also be considerations for the audio output sample rate, sample size and the number of channels.

The ideal frequency sampling rate should be 44,100 Hz, the sample size 16-bit and created using one or two channels.

These settings are desirable for all audio recording components because it provides a common standard and avoids conversion issues when mixing audio segments.

Ideal Software Program Features

Ideally, a program chosen to generate sound clips to use in a recording would have certain features, but this may not always be possible. A list of desirable features would be as follows:

  • Available for most operating platforms
  • Have no cost or a reasonable cost
  • Trial version available
  • Easily downloadable
  • Easy to use graphical interface
  • Include basic nature sound templates
  • Allow secondary random sounds to be used
  • Full documentation and help available
  • Allow generated audio output saved in WAV format
  • Permit control over physical audio characteristics
  • Allows control over length or size of generated recording
  • Provides controls for adjusting recording levels
  • No royalty payments required

Of the programs available that can generate sound clips, most usually focus on either nature sounds or brainwave sounds.

There are a greater number of software programs capable of generating brainwave tracks then there are those dedicated to generating nature sounds. The discussion of programs that can generate brainwave entrainment or binaural sounds is provided in a different article.

An important consideration when selecting a software program is to be able to generate nature sound clips without being charged royalty fees or additional licensing fees. This can be significant if you decide to market and sell your final recordings.

Recommended Software

One of the most popular software programs available for generating sounds of nature is Atmosphere Deluxe. It meets most of the desirable characteristics, but not all. Regrettably, it is only provided for the Windows platform. A free trial version is available and you may wish to download and test it. Below is a screenshot of Atmosphere Deluxe.

Atmosphere Deluxe

There are three different versions of this program available: Atmosphere Lite, Atmosphere Lite Plus and Atmosphere Deluxe. Atmosphere Lite is completely free of charge but has limited features.

Atmosphere Lite Plus is the midrange version and comes with additional sounds and features. Atmosphere Deluxe is the fully featured version and provides extra features and sounds that are more realistic.

All three are available for download and the Atmosphere Lite version has no usage restrictions. The Lite Plus and Deluxe versions are available as 21 day fully functional trial downloads and have a cost of $19.95 USD and $34.95 USD respectively.

The graphical interface is easy to use, basic nature sound templates (or presets) included, and random secondary sound control provided. Full documentation and online help is also available.

The generated output file can be saved as a WAV file or converted into the MP3 format, although this is not recommended. The physical characteristics of the output audio are also controllable.

It is also possible to control the length of the generated audio output in terms of physical file size or time duration, and the audio levels of the selected recording device to use. This is highly important if you require the sound segment to be of a specific time length.

There are no royalty fees involved when using either version of Atmosphere, but it may be necessary to purchase a commercial license. This is only important if you decide to use the generated audio sounds in your recordings and sell them. If your recordings are only for personal use then it is not necessary to purchase a commercial license.

The cost for obtaining a commercial license for the full version, or Atmosphere Deluxe is approximately $98 USD. This permits you to generate audio segments to be used in the final subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal recording at no additional charge and sell them in any way chosen without royalty costs.

Even if you decide that the Atmosphere software is not suitable for your purposes, it is worthwhile to at least experiment with this program and you can obtain the software from www.relaxingsoftware.com.

To conclude, you have different options available with respect to creating a masking or sound track. Using sounds of nature that are generated by a computer program is an excellent choice if you understand what is required.

About the Author

James Kudlak specializes in writing articles and building websites across a variety of topics such as paternity issues or insurance. Visit one of his newer website creations relating to pet insurance at http://petcarehealthinsurance.com/ which helps people select among the many Pet Insurance Companies available.

(c) Copyright – B. James Kudlak. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

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Before Building a Subliminal Message Track

After designing and writing a message script for your recording and before you either record or generate it, there is one more task you must perform. It is essential that you verify that it follows the guidelines for message scripts, no matter which type of recording is being created. This article reviews these different guidelines and explains why they are crucial to the success of your recording.

There are several aspects to consider when designing and writing a subliminal, supraliminal or paraliminal message script. Each is of equal importance and ignoring any one of them can mean the difference between a successful recording and one that may not work at all. These are listed and described as follows:

Negative Words and Phrases

There are many words and phrases that the subconscious mind either ignores or does not interpret as easily as the conscious mind does. Since the subconscious mind has only childlike reasoning capabilities, the use of negative words or phrases should be avoided when writing any message statement.

The most common of these are not, never, can not, did not, will not, is not, are not, no, why not and of the various contractions of these such as can’t, won’t, isn’t, didn’t and others. There are obviously many others, but generally if a word has a negative meaning then it should not be used. Only words that are descriptive in a positive way should be used.

Conditional Words and Terms

A conditional word or phrase implies that some event must occur before the desired result is obtained. The best example of this involves using the word IF. It implies that nothing can occur until some condition happens first. Unfortunately, the subconscious mind does not have the ability to project into the future and can only experience what is taking place right now.

There are other words or phrases that are conditional in nature and some of the most common are: after, before, but, even though, depending on, once, and others. These and any type of conditional message statement should not be used in your message scripts.

First and Second Person Usage

A message script can be written in the first person, the second person or perhaps both. The first person refers to statements written that begin with “I” and the second person as “You”. Either can be effective but it is dependent on the subconscious mind of the listener and how receptive it is to change.

Since it is virtually impossible to know the subconscious mind of the listener, the best strategy is to employ both first and second person message statements. They can be written in an alternating manner so that the same result is achieved. A first statement could be written as “I am successful” and a following one as “You are successful”.

Using the Proper Tense

Tense refers to the time perspective used in a message statement and can be in the past, present, present future or distant future. Neither the past nor the distant future tense should be used in writing a message statement.

The reason for this is that a statement worded as “I had” or “I will have” has no meaning to the subconscious mind of the listener. The subconscious mind is not capable of projecting either backward or forward in time and can only understand the present.

“I am motivated” is an example of a statement worded in the present tense, and in the present future, this would be phrased as “I am becoming motivated”. Depending on the personality of the listener, either the present or present future tense may have a stronger effect. Since you cannot know this beforehand, the best option is to compromise and vary the message statements using present and present future statements.

Addressing Sub-Themes

Sub-themes are issues that can lie beneath any of the target problems desired to be resolved with a subliminal or other type of self-help recording. Basic issues relating to self-image, self-love, forgiveness, allowing change and others should be addressed in the message statements.

It may require including a few message statements that suggest love, respect and forgiveness to oneself and others and this is strongly suggested. Examples of this would be “I love and respect myself”, “I forgive myself in every way” or “I allow changes in my life”.

Message Statement Length

The message statements that you design and write should use simple words and be reasonably short in length.  There is no reason to use complex words and the subconscious mind will simply ignore them. In addition, writing statements that are longer than ten words is not advisable for the same reason.

Choosing the simplest words and writing them in the most concise manner should be the preferred goal. Again, since the subconscious mind of the listener is like that of a child, simpler is better.

Number of Messages

There is no valid reason for including more than a reasonable number of message statements in the audio message segment. Too many messages will effectively render them confusing and too few will likely not affect the subconscious mind of the listener.

A reasonable number of message statements is considered to be between 50 to 60, although this can vary somewhat. Depending on how the message statements are recorded or generated, the audio result should be no longer than five minutes in duration. This is acceptable because the audio message segment will be repeated several times in the final mixed message track.

Using Permissive or Directive Statements

Either permissive, directive or both types of message statements can be used in your script. A permissive statement is worded so that it is presented in a manner that allows the subconscious mind to easily accept it. An example of this would be “I allow myself to be confident”. A directive statement is phrased in a more commanding manner and an example of this would be “I am confident now and always”.

If the listener is highly self-motivated, then it is likely that using permissive statements is a better choice. The reason for this is that their subconscious may be resistant to accepting commands because they are accustomed to self-directing their life. Directive or commanding statements are more effective for people that are less self-controlled.

Because it is unlikely that you will know the nature of the listener’s personality, both permissive and directive message statements should be used. The best strategy is to alternate between permissive and directive statements in the message script. In this way, both personality types are targeted and the result should be the same.

To summarize, each of these aspects is important and must be addressed when designing and writing your message scripts. This should always be done before you decide to record or generate the audio message segments.

To review, the points you should consider when writing message scripts are as follows:

  • Negative Words and Phrases
  • Conditional Words and Terms
  • First and Second Person Usage
  • Using the Proper Tense
  • Addressing Sub-Themes
  • Message Statement Length
  • Number of Messages
  • Using Permissive or Directive Statements

There are other related articles that explain each of these points in greater detail which may be of benefit to read. If each and all of these issues are addressed properly in the message script, then your final message track will have a greater effect on your potential listener.

About the Author

James Kudlak specializes in writing articles and building websites across a variety of topics such as online dating, paternity issues or insurance. Visit one of his websites relating to paternity testing at http://www.paternitytestinfo.net which provides help in confirming family genetic history and getting Home Testing kits for DNA.

(c) Copyright – B. James Kudlak. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

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